You’re probably already familiar with customer segmentation in your personal life. For example, you might tell everyone in your family about a promotion with a group text before you email your co-workers.
The same goes for your customers. They each have unique needs, traits, pain points, and expectations for your business.
And, sometimes, the most effective way to communicate with your target customers is by making them part of a group.
Why segment customers?
Segmenting customers goes beyond putting people into categories. When you segment customers, you learn about them deeply and use that info to create content for each segment’s unique needs and challenges.
Segmenting can improve your customer service and support efforts and help internal teams prepare for challenges different groups are likely to experience.
It also allows you to communicate with segments of customers through preferred channels or platforms, and help you find new opportunities for products, support, and service efficiently.
Let’s go over some common benefits of customer segmentation.
1. Get a competitive marketing edge.
“If you deliver a personalized customer experience via email or CRM, you’ll always have an edge over competitors that use a one-size-fits-all approach,” says Michael Maximoff, Co-Founder at Belkins.
“Take Driveline, for example. This is a retail brand that we helped generate leads. To get the best leads, we split Driveline’s ideal customers into two segments. The first: retailers. The second: brands.”
He continues, “We then drilled down again and divided each segment into previous and new clients before sending them customized messages. The outcome of this customer segmentation process was the closing of a $1.5M deal.”
2. Target customers better with paid campaigns.
Whether you’re running PPC, LinkedIn, or Facebook ads, optimizing your campaign gets you a better return on your ad spend. This is one area where customer segmentation shines.
“With paid marketing on social media, we’ve realized that we need to know our audience demographic and their interests. By segmenting customers into different groups, we can identify the unique needs, preferences, and behaviors of each segment,” says Adam Wright, Founder of Human Tonik.
Segmentation lets you engage the right customers with relevant ads, which can lead to higher click-through rates, conversions, and sales. This also ensures you spend more effort on customers that provide a high return while lowering your ad spend for less profitable customer segments.
3. Improve your email nurture campaigns.
What appeals to Gen Z might be unappealing to millennials. The same applies to entry-level workers versus directors in the same field. These are all different segments of people with unique ways of thinking and know-how.
Understanding these customers lets you segment them in your email list so you can send relevant nurture emails that endear them to your brand.
Corey Donovan, President of Alta Technologies, says this shows customers you want to cater to their needs rather than clutter their inboxes.
Now that you understand what customer segmentation is and why it’s a process worth investing time in, let’s cover the most common types of segmentation.
Although this list doesn’t cover every type of customer segmentation, you should have a good starting point to establish your customer segmentation model.
1. Demographic Segmentation
Demographic segmentation divides customers into groups based on major life circumstances. Examples of segmentation by demographic include age, gender, income, education, and marital status.
Ecommerce and fashion are two popular industries where demographic segmentation holds sway.
For instance, if a fashion business owner sells to people in the straight and LGBTQ communities, segmenting customers by gender will help them send relevant product recommendations and messages to each group.
Done right, this helps you get more loyal customers who’d stick with you for a long time.
2. Geographic Segmentation
Segmentation by geography divides customers based on location, including country, state, city, and town.
This segmentation makes sense when you run a business with at least two locations in the same town, city, state, or country, or if you ship goods to customers in different geographical regions.
Segmenting customers based on their geography lets you tailor your messaging so you speak like them and speak to them.
By using their slang or stating things they relate with in their locality, they see the thought you put into your content and instantly know that your message is specifically for them.
3. Psychographic Segmentation
Examples of segmentation by psychographics include personality, attitude, values, and interests. You can use this segmentation model if you offer multiple services.
For instance, a marketer who writes content about SEO, content strategy, and copywriting could segment their audience based on these interests.
4. Technographic Segmentation
Examples of segmentation by technographics include mobile use, desktop use, apps, and software.
What technology people use is helpful to know, whether it’s just for your online marketing or for SaaS businesses that rely entirely on technology to deliver their service.
Behavioral segmentation focuses on customer behaviors in relation to your brand.
Examples of segmentation by customer behavior include tendencies and frequent actions, feature or product use, and habits.
This segmentation model is highly relevant when you’re running PPC or YouTube ads. It ensures you don’t consume your ad spend on customer segments that aren’t a fit.
6. Needs-based Segmentation
Examples of segmentation by customer needs include product or service must-haves and needs of specific customer groups. Take a company like AppSumo, for example. They don’t only sell software. They market courses.
While a founder may need software, a copywriter may not. Meaning, if AppSumo sends the same email to both a founder and a copywriter, it might not resonate with one group because their needs differ.
7. Value-based Segmentation
Examples of segmentation by customer values include the economic value of specific customer groups for the business. Use this customer segmentation model if you sell products or services with high and low pricing.
Let’s look at some customer segmentation examples to show how you can apply these models to your segmentation strategy.
Demographic Customer Segmentation
Many businesses start with gender segments when building a customer segmentation program. While this is a quick way to start, ensure this segment is inclusive. Have plenty of gender categories to ensure you accurately segment customers into groups where they feel comfortable.
Age is another common factor that businesses use to segment customers. After all, age tells you a lot about the person interacting with your business. For example, a 30-year-old single person living in Boston won’t have the same budgets and interests as a 70-year-old retiree in Oklahoma.
Occupation can reveal a lot about customers’ interests and availability. It can also give you an idea of their budget and annual income — especially if they don’t share this information with you directly.
4. Household Income
Household income gives you an idea of how much money a customer can potentially spend with your business. Keep in mind that income isn’t the only factor at play here. Location, occupation, family structure, and more will also influence a customer’s budget.
5. Marital Status
If marital status is important for understanding your customer base, then you can segment buyers in a few different ways: whether they have a spouse, are in a relationship, or otherwise.
Location is important to make your marketing strategy feel more personalized by region. First, it tells you where your customers are and how you can find them.
This data also tells you how you should approach certain segments if they live in different areas. For example, how you market to people in New York City will likely differ from how you market to people from Walla Walla, Washington.
7. Preferred Language
It’s important to know the language that your customers prefer to speak. This allows you to communicate more clearly and makes it easier for customers to interact with your business.
Out-of-home advertising is getting more and more advanced. Transportation, for instance, can also present a valuable marketing opportunity for your business.
For instance, if your customers take the subway to work, you can buy ad space on trains and popular subway stations, as well as digital billboards throughout cities.
Understanding how and where your customers work can be valuable insights depending on your line of business.
Behavioral Customer Segmentation
10. Life Cycle Stage
Life cycle stage attempts to clarify which part of the customer journey a particular buyer is in. Are they a new lead who is ready for a sales conversation? Or are they a loyal customer who’s willing to advocate on your business’s behalf?
Knowing where the relationship stands between you and your customers can help you form a more effective marketing strategy.
11. Website Activity
Website activity tracks anything your customers do while engaging with your website.
For example, you could segment customers based on the first page they interact with. Or you could segment them based on how many times they’ve visited your home page or clicked on a certain page element — like a call-to-action.
12. Last Customer Engagement
You can learn a lot about customer relations from the last interaction a customer has with your business. If it was a positive interaction, they might be ready for a specific promotion based on when they are in the buyer journey.
If the interaction was negative, you might want to ping your customer service or success teams to strengthen the relationship.
13. Ecommerce Activity
Like website activity, ecommerce activity refers to actions customers take in your online store.
For instance, abandoned carts are a common customer segmentation choice. You can also segment customers based on the products they’ve purchased or product pages they’ve seen but haven’t converted on.
Psychographic Customer Segmentation
Values are usually harder to identify than demographic information, like age or location. To determine a customer’s values, you need to understand their needs thoroughly, possibly through one-to-one interviews or surveys.
From there, you can use this information to empathize with the roadblocks they face when trying to achieve goals. When you can align with the customer in this way, it’s easier to see what they value most in a product, service, or brand.
Values are characteristics and actions that customers admire the most. But interests are things that customers enjoy that may not relate to your business.
For example, your customers might have an interest in dogs, so you could partner with a local pet store and run a cross-promotional campaign.
As a bonus, you can foster relationships with adjacent businesses. This lets you reach customers in places you might not have thought about before.
Personality can be hard to sum up in one phrase or sentence. But you can segment customers based on unique personality traits.
Are they outgoing? Introverted? Comical? Serious? You get the point. The more you know about their personality, the more you can adapt your marketing to fit your audience.
Technographic Customer Segmentation
17. Device Type
Device type segments users based on the type of device they’re using to interact with your website, whether that’s a phone, tablet, or computer.
For instance, if most of your website visitors are using smartphones, then you know mobile responsiveness is compulsory for your site.
Or, you might consider building a mobile app to capitalize on users who are interacting with your brand while on the go.
18. Browser Type
Browser type refers to the internet browser that a customer is using. For example, are they using Google Chrome, Safari, DuckDuckGo, or Mozilla Firefox?
With dozens of internet browsers available, each displays your website, emails, and apps differently.
This makes it important to understand what your customers are using so you can test whether your marketing content displays properly on those browsers.
19. Original Source
Original source is a segment that helps you understand where your website visitors are coming from.
This lets you know if people are discovering your site with search engines like Google. It also shows you if they’re coming to your pages from social media, email, or a referral from another site.
Once you know how your customers are finding you, you can optimize this conversion path. This can help make it easier for more people to locate your site.
Value-based Customer Segmentation
20. Customer Satisfaction Scores
Whether you use CSAT or NPS,customer satisfaction scores tell you a lot about recent service interactions. Higher scores mean customers are happy with your service. Lower scores show a risk of churn.
Segmenting customers into promoters and detractors can help you increase the value of your most loyal customers. It can also help you make sure that unhappy customers get the support they need.
21. Number of Purchases
The number of purchases that a customer makes is a primary factor in determining customer value. The more purchases they make, the more valuable they are to your business.
22. Average Purchase Value
The higher the average purchase value is, the more overall value the customer offers to your business.
Those customers who make repeat or regular purchases from your business are invaluable. One tactic to consider is rewarding them with exclusive offers or promotions.
Needs-based Customer Segmentation
23. Product Attributes
Some groups of customers need specific features from your products to use them.
For example, if your website isn’t web-accessible, you could be inadvertently alienating individuals with disabilities. Make sure you’re aware of customers with these needs so that your website is as inclusive as possible.
24. Service Needs
Service needs are the services that customers require when interacting with your business. Let’s take HubSpot as our example.
If you’re a new HubSpot user, you might want to go through an onboarding process to learn how to use our products. Should you already have experience with HubSpot in the past, you might decide to opt out of this service.
Finding these needs will ensure you properly support your customers.
25. Delivery Method
Your product isn’t useful to your customers if you don’t deliver it at the right time or in the right way. This segmentation option allows you to categorize individuals who have specific shipping or delivery needs.
Your business goals should inform your customer segmentation strategy. By thinking about what you plan to achieve company-wide, you can create a customer segmentation strategy that can help you:
Organize your customer base.
Easily manage targeted communications.
Choose top sales prospects.
While you can segment your users and clients in many ways, these steps can help your team avoid some pitfalls along the way.
1. Determine your customer segmentation goals and variables.
Your business may already use buyer personas. If you run a small business without one, consider developing buyer personas because they can help with customer segmentation.
With personas, you have a sense of your customers’ demographic, geographic, and technographic details. This info can help you match buyer personas to specific goals.
For instance, if you have three buyer personas like this:
Jane – a small business owner.
Katherine – a mid-level business owner.
Peter – CEO of an enterprise company.
You could have conversion goals of 10% for Jane’s persona, 5% for Katherine’s persona, and 2% for Peter’s persona. This simple analogy works when you have products and pricing levels that suit each persona.
You could have conversion goals of 10% for Jane’s persona, 5% for Katherine’s persona, and 2% for Peter’s persona. This simple analogy works when you have products and pricing levels that suit each persona.
Segmenting may get complex when using customer segments to solve specific business problems. You may not have enough data or the right data to deliver the best customer experience.
Here, use demographic or psychographic segmentation to grow the top of the funnel.Start by thinking about what makes a customer valuable to your business:
Is product fit or profitability more important?
Do they make repeat purchases?
Are they active in communities online?
Where do they drop off during the buyer journey?
As you continue this process, include important team members from across the organization. By leveraging their unique experience and viewpoint, you can create more useful customer segments.
Before you move to the next step, you’ll also want to look at variables within each target segment.
For example, say one of your customer segments is mothers between the ages of 30 to 35. Data shows that about half of this segment buys at the end of November.
But do you know whether they’re buying your product as a gift or to use at home?
This variable seems small, but it can make a big difference in marketing and sales messaging for this segment.
2. Set up and prioritize customer segmentation goals.
Once you have a clear picture of your goals, it’s time to prioritize, as your data will probably increase.
Often, this increase in data can be overwhelming, causing some companies to go through the effort of segmenting only to continue to send the same message to every customer.
One way to approach this is by organizing the largest segments first and proceeding from there. That way, you have large groups of people to communicate with or market to immediately.
Another option is to rank segment projects by performance, like purchase value. With the order set, it’s time to set up each project.
4. Segment your customers into groups of your choice.
After pulling the customer data you need, it’s time to build your segments.
To get the best results from customer segmentation, approach them with a few ideas in mind.
Tip 1: Make segments easy to use.
While the segments might be complex to compile, they need to be easy to use by other team members.
For instance, a local grocer segments their in-town shoppers from out-of-town shoppers, which can help with more personalized outreach.
But these segments make little sense for a multinational sporting goods store. What defines “out of town” simply doesn’t apply.
Tip 2: Use machine learning.
Applying automation powered by machine learning in order to build your customer segmentation can be a huge time saver for your team.
This helpful article outlines how you can use HubSpot to segment contact lists and create communication workflows for subsets of customers.
Tip 3: Make customer segments the right size.
Don’t go too narrow in your segments. In other words, ensure you create useful segments that are still large enough to cause a measurable impact on profit.
Tip 4: Make them easy to access.
Your customer segmentation should start with your marketing strategy. Each segment should be well-aligned with your marketing and sales channels.
For example, say your marketing strategy focuses on email and Facebook, but you’re creating a Gen Z segment. Of this group, 62% are on Instagram, but only 34% are on Facebook.
So, while this segment may be a fit for your business, you might have trouble reaching them.
Tip 5: Create stable segments.
Great customer segmentation takes time. So, the value of your segment has to last long enough for your team to connect and engage in a measurable way.
Behavioral and psychographic data can change quickly. Depending on your products, you may want to use these points less than other qualities that are more stable.
Tip 6: Make segments profitable.
It doesn’t matter how clearly you define a segment of your target audience if they won’t impact your profits.
Each segment should come from an existing product or service that your business offers. And each B2B segment should have a clear set of unique needs that align with business goals.
Tip 7: Understand how different models overlap.
Behavioral and demographic models are usually more useful together than they are alone.
For example, say you sell popular tennis shoes to men. You can create a segment based on ecommerce activity and purchase value.
But it could be tough to base a marketing campaign on these factors. And what if these buyers are also break dancers from suburban neighborhoods?
You might miss an opportunity to connect with this group. Combining several models gives you a chance to make your brand more diverse and inclusive. It also offers more opportunities to improve your products for your target audience.
Tip 8: Find your loyal customers.
In the rush to find new customers, it’s easy to miss creating segments for customers who are already a part of your ecosystem.
By maximizing your interactions with current customers, you can optimize the average purchase price or the number of purchases a customer may make regularly.
5. Target and market to your client and user segments.
Having customer segments isn’t enough. You need a plan to put segments into action.
According to a 2022 Forrester study, 76% of businesses say their customers are engaging less with digital marketing than they were a year ago. This makes effective segment outreach essential.
Here are a couple simple ways you can make the most of your customer segmentation.
Make communication customer-centric.
Use segment information to decide which messages, content, and products will bring the most value to your clients. Then, craft a strategy that authentically engages with each segment.
You want your customers to feel you understand them, and that you’re connecting to help, not just sell.
Create a plan for each segment.
You won’t get the best outcomes by sending slight variations of the same content to each segment. Instead, create a unique plan for each segment.
You can use segment data to:
Enhance each experience.
Create more meaningful landing pages.
Qualify and delight leads.
Figure out the best timing for outreach.
Anticipate support needs.
Create new targeted content.
Solve issues faster.
6. Run regular customer segmentation analysis.
Finally, while you develop your segmentation to last, you will need to put in the work to make sure they stay useful.
In the end, change is the only constant. While machine learning and automation can help you see how your data is changing, data needs analysis.
It’s up to your business to create a regular cadence to review your segments so that they keep performing.
Customer Segmentation Analysis
Once you’ve got those segments set up, it’s important to go back and revisit them from time to time.
Not only can you confirm these segments are necessary, but you can also analyze whether particular segments are helping you reach your goals.
You can use this process to assess resources, use customer feedback, and get a long-term view of your customer base.
Benefits of Analyzing Your Customer Segmentation
Segmentation analysis can seem like a time-consuming process. But there are many reasons you’ll want to analyze your segments consistently.
Customer segmentation can help your business:
Improve product delivery.
Boost process efficiency.
Help you target content marketing and sales outreach.
Update pricing, plans, and strategies.
Improve customer relationships.
Create new offers, products, and services.
Improve brand awareness.
Stay ahead of competitors.
Track product sentiment.
With consistent analysis, your business will be more aware of changes in customer sentiment. This approach can also help you innovate in a customer-centric way. It puts the latest customer ideas at the center of any new business plan.
How to Do Customer Segmentation Analysis
Segmentation analysis isn’t as time-consuming as creating new customer segments. But each step below is important to make sure that your customer segments are effective for your business.
1. Review customer segments for accuracy.
Changes in software, products, pricing, and more can skew data. You’ll want to make sure that the data used to build each segment is still accurate, especially if they’re used across multiple channels.
For example, say you collect behavioral data through your email marketing software, but not on social media.
Your first step might be to compare analytics between the two platforms. This can help you see if customer responses within the same segment have changed.
You may also need to repeat anecdotal data collection to update your segments. Have company goals, pricing, or brand reputation changed since you created your segments? If yes, you’ll want to update your data.
2. Compare customer segment performance against business goals.
If you haven’t already, review your key performance indicators (KPIs) for each of your customer segments. Then, compare how well those segments are doing in comparison to your overall business performance.
Are some segments doing better than others? Are some underperforming?
It may also help to review segment changes alongside current events and cultural shifts that impact demographics.
For example, over 180,000 people moved away from California in 2020, and almost 118,000 left in 2021.
During this same period, more people were moving away from dense cities like San Francisco and Los Angeles to more open inland communities.
Because these shifts impact transportation and development, they can create other changes in customer needs.
Businesses that watch these shifts can better meet customer expectations than those that miss these details.
3. Check with internal teams for segmentation feedback.
Customer segmentation is only useful if it’s used consistently. When you’re analyzing your segments, be sure to loop in all relevant internal stakeholders.
It’s also a good idea to connect with key stakeholders. This can help you make sure that company-wide decisions factor in customer segment changes.
These are a few strategies you can use to quickly collect feedback from your peers and leaders:
Send email surveys.
Add targeted feedback forms to employee newsletters.
Organize a committee or focus group.
Create a Slack channel for informal feedback.
Offer project-specific incentives.
4. Collect feedback from your customers.
You may want to supplement your anecdotal research with feedback from a wider group of customers. These strategies for gathering customer feedback can help you improve your response rate.
You might also want to vary the type of outreach by segment.
For example, busy B2B customers might respond well to an in-app survey, while loyalty club members may be open to a customer interview.
The software also offers an option for event-based segmentation. For example, if your company is holding a daylong workshop in Seattle, you could use event-based segmentation to help you locate and inform your customers in the area.
Then, once the workshop is complete, you can use details obtained from attendees to segment your customers for your future events.
Experian’s customer segmentation software has multiple functions so you can build, view, and manage your segments to meet your business needs.
You can focus on lifestyle segmentation to hone in on the habits and preferences of your customers. You can also find your most economically-valuable groups so you can add those details to your profitable-customer contact portfolio.
Sprout Social makes it easier to reach specific segments when creating and sharing messages on both Facebook and LinkedIn. Their Audience Targeting feature is a marketing-focused customer segmentation tool.
On Facebook, the tool lets you segment and target customers by interests, gender, age, location, relationship status, education, and age. Meanwhile, LinkedIn allows you to segment and target customers by business size, industry, location, and seniority.
Customer segmentation helps you boost conversions by providing more relevant information to your audience. It also helps streamline cross-team and communication efforts so that you can meet customers’ specific needs.
Start working on your customer segmentation strategy and use these tools for support along the way. You have everything you need to exceed customer expectations.
Editor’s note: This post was originally published in February 2020 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.