650+ Best Instagram Captions for 2023: Good, Cool, Funny, & Cute
Finding a good Instagram caption is a challenge, especially if you run the Instagram profile of a business. Why? Because if you want to build a consistent brand on Instagram, it’s important to maintain a distinctive voice on every post, video, or reel. That’s harder than it sounds.
If you’re tired of writing captions from scratch, there’s no need to keep searching. We’ve compiled the best Instagram captions for every type of brand and for every type of post.
Whether you want to sound cool, make a funny quip, or come across as cute, you can incorporate many of these captions into an Instagram business strategy. Just make sure your audience would find your caption funny, clever, or the right amount of sassy.
Click one of the following links to jump through some of our best IG captions:
Next time you’re contemplating a witty line of text to go with your Instagram photo, take a look at our complete list of captions that suit any mood or occasion you’ll be sharing with the world. You can also customize these captions to make them perfect for your feed. First, we recommend saving some time by downloading our kit of additional IG caption examples, which you can use to inspire your caption creation process.
Instagram Captions for Business
Your Instagram business account is one of the best places to showcase your brand personality while still delivering business updates in an engaging way. You can use the captions below for most social media content ideas, but feel free to customize them depending on your specific post.
Skip to the list of Instagram captions you’re most interested in:
If you’re running a business account, you should use your captioning to humanize your business more than your average paid ad.
Your business Instagram captions are an opportunity to give your brand some personality while getting the word out about your product or service offering. Here are some of our go-to captions that prospects and customers will love.
Good evening, [city]! We’re in town for [event] at Booth [#]. Stop by and say hi!
“If you’re offered a seat on a rocket ship, don’t ask what seat. Just get on.” -Sheryl Sandberg, COO of Facebook
Our [#]-person squad completed the [road race name]! And we did it all for the post-run sneaker selfie. 👟
We got product in the pipeline … check back for an exciting announcement on [date]!
Diversity isn’t a recruitment metric — it’s an ingredient for success. At [company], we thrive on the unique backgrounds, experiences, and perspectives of our people.
Spot the CEO. 😉
At [company name], our best asset is our people.
We had a great time with our customers at [meeting/event]! @[client/partner], you guys rock.
Thrilled to have [customer] at our office today! Come back any time. 😊
[Company name] is off for [holiday]! We hope you all have a safe long weekend.
Big things have small beginnings. [Company]’s HQ began right here.
“It is better to fail in originality than to succeed in imitation.” –Herman Melville
How many [company name] employees does it take to spell “TEAM”?
Want to work with these awesome people, working on a lot of awesome things? We’re hiring! Click the link in our bio to see our current openings.
Check, check, one, two … is this thing on? [Company name] is now on Instagram! Follow us to learn about our culture, product, and (awesome) people.
Tired of [customer pain point]? We’ve got good news. Click the link in our bio to learn about [product]’s latest feature.
[Company] presents our latest product — made with love just for you. ❤️ Link in bio to learn more.
Stop wasting time with [customer pain point]. Our [product] will help you achieve [X] more efficiently — just ask our current customers. Check out our latest case study here: [Link]
Handmade in [location] and delivered to your door. That’s the [Company] promise.
When life gives you lemons, you make lemonade. When [company name] gives you [type of product], you make money.
Small Business Captions
Running a small business? You can use a friendlier, more personable tone in your Instagram posts, emphasizing your products’ better quality and advertising the benefits of purchasing from local or small businesses. We love the captions below for businesses that focus on handmade or locally sourced products.
“Made with love and care in [city]. Order yours online.”
“Every order and customer means the world to us — thank you for your support!”
“The best things start small and simple. Learn about our process at the link in bio.”
“We put our heart and soul into every product we create, and we hope you can taste the difference.”
“Join our revolution — we promise it’s worth the buzz.”
“From our small business to your doorstep, delivered with ♥.”
“Shop small, support your local economy.”
“Shop local, feel good.”
“Quality > quantity.”
“Treat yourself with a [product/service] made just for you.”
“Create connections and spread joy. Come in today to experience the [business name] difference.”
Coming Soon Captions for Instagram
If you have something new coming down the line, why not generate some buzz with a series of Instagram posts? Here are some captions to get the conversation going and increase anticipation for new products, releases, or business expansions.
“Mark your calendars. Something amazing is coming your way on [date].”
“The countdown is on.”
“Stay tuned for something special.”
“Join us on our mission to make a difference starting from [date].”
“You won’t want to miss this. We partnered with [company] to bring you the latest in [industry].”
“Get ready to meet our latest creation.”
“The wait is almost over. Launching on [date].”
“We’ve got something incredible in the works, and we can’t wait to share more with you.”
“No need for binoculars. Something big is on the horizon.”
10.”We’re brewing up something exciting, and we can’t wait for you to be a part of it.”
“Something special is in the works — can you guess what it is?”
“We’ve been keeping a little secret from you… Stay tuned.”
“A new adventure is about to begin. New [city] location opening on [date].”
“Keep your eyes peeled for our big announcement on [date].”
“Can’t wait to share our latest project with you. Sign up on our website for updates.”
Catchy Instagram Captions for Business
Showcase your brand personality a little more with a catchy caption or saying. A catchy caption can convey your brand ethos, your entrepreneurial spirit, or your company values. The below options can effectively be used for business updates or news.
“We’re here to make a difference, not just a profit.”
“No matter how small, every success counts.”
“Good things come to those who hustle.”
“Expect the unexpected.”
“Small business, big heart.”
“Keeping it simple with our latest launch.”
“Service is not just a transaction, it’s an experience.”
“It’s never too late to start — just do it.”
“Believe in your dreams, and the rest will fall into place.”
“Make waves in your business, or get lost in the sea of competition.”
“Whatever you do, do it with all your heart.”
“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it’s the courage to continue that counts.”
“Creating experiences, one [product] at a time.”
“Small things can make a big difference in a business.”
“Find your happy place here.”
Business Meeting Captions for Instagram
Feel like a business meeting isn’t Instagram-worthy? Think again. Not only can posting about your meeting show your company culture, but it can also show your followers that you’re hard at work trying to make better products and services for them. Here are a few of our favorite business meeting captions that you can customize.
“Generating our next big idea with the brightest minds we know. P.S. We’re hiring!”
“When we come together, we achieve great things.”
“Collaboration is the key to success.”
“The only way to do great work is to love what you do.”
“Meetings that matter, for a purpose that counts.”
“In the right company, your ideas will flourish.”
“Everything is possible when you have the right people in the room.”
“There’s no substitute for hard work and determination.”
“When passion meets purpose, great things happen.”
“We believe there are no bad ideas. We love facing challenges head-on.”
“The best ideas come to life in a room full of great minds.”
“Surround yourself with positive people who lift you higher.”
“We may have different perspectives, but we’re working towards a common goal.”
“Even a ten-minute business meeting can be the key to unlocking limitless possibilities.”
“We work hard, we play hard, and we achieve great things together.”
Quote Instagram Captions
If you can’t find the words yourself, there’s a quote out there to help you convey that idea.
Using quotes for your Instagram caption is a great way to evoke and share your emotions. Quotes can propel people to think more open-mindedly, and optimistically — or even motivate them to do something great. Below is a list of some of our favorites.
“The greatest glory in living lies not in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.” –Nelson Mandela
“Always remember that you are absolutely unique. Just like everyone else.” -Margaret Mead
“You change the world by being yourself.” -Yoko Ono
“In the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.” -Abraham Lincoln
“What I know for sure is that speaking your truth is the most powerful tool we all have.” – Oprah Winfrey
“The purpose of our lives is to be happy.” -Dalai Lama
“You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough.” -Mae West
“Live in the sunshine, swim the sea, drink the wild air.” -Ralph Waldo Emerson
“I would rather die of passion than of boredom.” -Vincent van Gogh
“Success isn’t about the end result, it’s about what you learn along the way.” -Vera Wang
“It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop.” -Confucius
“Everything you’ve ever wanted is on the other side of fear.” -George Addair
“You become what you believe.” -Oprah Winfrey
“Believe you can and you’re halfway there.” -Theodore Roosevelt
“The way to get started is to quit talking and begin doing.” -Walt Disney
“Love the life you live. Live the life you love.” -Bob Marley
“My mission in life is not merely to survive, but to thrive; and to do so with some passion, some compassion, some humor, and some style.” -Maya Angelou
“Embrace what makes you unique, even if it makes others uncomfortable.” – Janelle Monae
“Success is a collection of problems solved.” – I.M. Pei
“To be beautiful means to be yourself. You don’t need to be accepted by others. You need to accept yourself.” -Thich Nhat Hanh
“In a gentle way, you can shake the world.” -Gandhi
“I dream. Sometimes I think that’s the only right thing to do.” -Haruki Murakami
“We become what we think about.” -Earl Nightingale
“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.” –Winston Churchill
“You are never too old to set another goal or to dream a new dream.” -C.S. Lewis
“If you are depressed you are living in the past. If you are anxious you are living in the future. If you are at peace you are living in the present.” -Lao Tzu
“Life is like riding a bicycle. To keep your balance, you must keep moving.” -Albert Einstein
“If you are working on something that you really care about, you don’t have to be pushed. The vision pulls you.” -Steve Jobs
“Security is mostly a superstition. Life is either a daring adventure or nothing.” – Helen Keller
“Stay true to yourself and never let what somebody else says distract you from your goals.” -Michelle Obama
Personal Captions for Instagram
If you’re looking for Instagram captions for your personal Instagram profile, we’ve got you covered. The good news? The captions below are also a great option for businesses with a more casual or personable brand voice.
Skip to the Instagram captions you’re most interested in:
A picture is already worth a thousand words — there’s no need to go on and on in your captions. Let the photo or video speak for itself and keep it brief. Take the captions below and change them to suit your exact post. It may be enough to tag someone who’s in the photo, give credit if you’re reposting, or prompt people to check out your bio.
This week’s photo dump.
Photo dump sacrifice for the algorithm god.
More info in bio.
Link in bio.
Sneak peek →
[Product] in production at our factories.
@[account] x @[account]. Coming soon.
[The most dominant color in your post, ie “Red,” “Blue,” etc]
We don’t always have to take social media so seriously, so explore some funny Instagram captions for your upcoming posts.
Instagram can be a tool to convey aesthetic picture taking or stoic model shoots, it can also be a fun place to share a laugh or lighthearted content, too. Sharing a funny caption can boost your page’s personality, and potentially brighten someone else’s day. We hope the following captions make you crack a smile.
Glitch in the matrix.
My favorite exercise is a cross between a lunge and a crunch … I call it lunch.
I need a six-month holiday, twice a year.
We tried to be normal once. Worst two minutes of our lives!
There are 16-year-olds competing at the Olympics and some of us (me) still push on “pull” doors.
That awkward moment when you’re wearing Nike’s and you can’t do it.
I’m just a girl, standing in front of a salad, asking it to be a cupcake.
What if we told you … you can eat without posting it on Instagram?
I know the voices in my head aren’t real, but sometimes their ideas are just too good to ignore.
We don’t know what’s tighter: Our jeans or our company culture.
Friday … Our second-favorite F word.
We don’t care what people think of us. Unless they’re our customers. We definitely care what customers think of us.
All you need is love … and investors. All you need is love and investors.
Hi, we’re [company name]. We build amazing apps and eat amazing apps.
They say “Do what you love and money will come to you.” Let’s see what happens, I just ordered tamales.
My favorite subject in school was recess.
No thoughts brain empty just tacos and cats.
[Food item] so good it’s got me weak in the knees.
The best part about waking up is going to sleep eighteen hours later.
The older you get, the better you get, unless you’re a banana.
Bring the alcohol! Because no great story started with someone eating a salad.
Don’t worry if plan A fails. There are 25 more letters in the alphabet.
If you’re not supposed to eat at night, why is there a light bulb in the refrigerator?
First rule of Sundays: If you can’t reach it from your couch, you don’t need it.
If you fall, I will be there. Signed, Floor.
The first thing I do after coming to work is logging off.
I used to think I was indecisive, but now I am not so sure.
Friends buy you lunch. Best friends eat your lunch.
Darn it, just accidentally had another thought again.
My goal this weekend is to move… just enough so people don’t think I’m dead.
You think nothing is impossible? Try getting me out of bed before 12 PM.
Looking at these pictures won’t fix all your problems, but it’s a good start.
My sauce is too hot that’s why you’ll never ketchup.
Google Maps said it’s MY TURN.
I got my haters seasick, they see me and get sick.
If there would be an award for being lazy, I would send someone to pick it up for me.
Clever Instagram Captions
Trying to come up with some clever IG captions on your own can be a lot of work, so we’ve done it for you. Below we’ve compiled a list of our favorite clever Instagram captions for all your witty caption needs.
Patience — what you have when there are too many witnesses.
Maybe she’s born with it, maybe it’s the Clarendon filter.
“Life is short.” False — it’s the longest thing you do.
Happy Sunday! There may be no excuse for laziness, but I’m still looking.
Rejection is just redirection.
Better an “oops” than a “what if.”
Anyone looking for a heart? Selling mine for $2. (Used, good condition)
The world is changed by your example, not your opinion.
There’s a big difference between being alive and living.
The best times begin at the end of your comfort zone. So you can catch me on the opposite end of the end of my comfort zone.
When nothing goes right, go left.
“Success is making those who believed in you look brilliant.” -Dharmesh Shah
“If you can’t convince them, confuse them.” -Harry Truman
The world changes by your example, not your opinion. So get acting right.
It’s always a good idea to be on the right side of history.
When you learn, teach. When you get, give.
Don’t quit your daydream.
Legend has it that if you look hard enough you’ll see the weekend approaching!
It’s time to make new memories. But first, five tequila shots.
I’m on a seafood diet. I see food, I eat it.
Sorry I didn’t get back to your text. I was too busy converting oxygen into CO2.
Living on Earth is expensive, but it does include a free trip around the sun.
“Arguing with a fool proves there are two.” -Doris M. Smith
Well, enough about me. Let’s talk about you. What do you think about me?
We’re all one more minute closer to dying. What’s one more shot going to do?
There’s a pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. If you find it, let me know so I can get some.
Cute Instagram Captions
If there’s one thing people on the internet love to see — it’s anything and everything that falls into the category of cute. Whether you’re posting your adorable pet, your significant other, or a picnic by the park, we’ve got all the cute Instagram captions that you need to complement them.
“Sing with me, sing for the years, sing for the laughter, sing for the tears.” — Aerosmith, “Dream On”
“Life is good.” — Future & Drake, “Life is Good”
“Life without dreaming is a life without meaning.” – Wale, “Aston Martin Music”
“But like the sun, know you know I find my way back ‘round.” — J. Cole, “Crooked Smile”
“I will overcome any hurdle or obstacle that’s in my path.” — OutKast, “Knowing”
“I’m way up, I feel blessed.” — Drake, “Blessings”
“Eat, sleep, and breathe it. Rehearse and repeat it.” — Dua Lipa, “New Rules”
“I’d rather be dry but at least I’m alive. Rain on me.” — Lady Gaga, “Rain On Me”
“And I know that I gotta be above it now. And I know that I can’t let them bring me down.” — Tame Impala, “Be Above It”
“I’m on the pursuit of happiness and I know everything that shine ain’t always gonna be gold, hey, I’ll be fine once I get it, yeah, I’ll be good.” — Kid Cudi, “Pursuit of Happiness (Nightmare)”
“There’s much more to life than dyin’ over your past mistakes and people who threw dirt on your name.” — Lil Nas X, “Sun Goes Down”
“They say the loudest in the room is weak, that’s what they assume, but I disagree.” — Tyler the Creator, “911/Mr. Lonely”
“You don’t have to be like everybody else, you don’t have to fit into the norm, you are not here to conform.” — Marina, “Ancient Dreams in a Modern Land”
“Throw me in the fire, baby, I’ll survive.” — BROCKHAMPTON, “RENTAL”
“When you being real, you ain’t worried ’bout who fake.” —Megan Thee Stallion, “Money Good”
“We’re so young, boy, we ain’t got nothin’ to lose.” -Doja Cat, “Kiss Me More”
“If someone talked to you the way you do to you, I’d put their teeth through. Love Yourself!” -IDLES, “Television”
Holiday Instagram Captions
Around the holidays, you want to post and share the memories you’ve made throughout the years. For whichever one you’re celebrating, take some inspiration from our favorite Instagram captions and spread some holiday cheer.
“Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other.” — Abraham Lincoln
Didn’t make it to midnight.
Resolutions are made to be broken.
Ringing in the new year — like a bell.
“Tomorrow is the first blank page of a 365-page book. Write a good one.” — Brad Paisley
New year, same me.
Time to show off my bubbly personality.
Any excuse to wear glitter.
Starting off the year on the right foot.
There are 12 months ahead of us to make a difference.
Day 1 of 365
Sip, sip, hooray!
All you need is a fresh start.
Save water, drink champagne.
The best has yet to come.
Valentine’s Day Instagram Captions
Roses are red. Violets are blue. Consider this post my Valentine to you.
Don’t tell me you love me. Tell me you’re outside with pizza.
All I need is you. (And maybe wine + chocolate too.)
Cupid called, he wants his arrow back.
99% of my socks are single, and you don’t see them crying about it.
I will do anything for love. Except that. And that. Or that. Or…
I followed my heart and it led me to the fridge.
Look at us. Hey. Look at us. Who woulda thought? Not me!
In love with my best friend.
I’m better when I’m with you.
Halloween Instagram Captions
Creepin’ it real.
I brake for Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups.
Oh my gourd, Becky, look at her bat.
You’re just my (blood) type.
How to eat candy corn: don’t.
Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn and cauldron bubble.
Driving me batty.
“Scary hours.” — Drake
Resting Witch Face
I’m wearing my elastic pants.
“For those of you who cannot be with family this Thanksgiving, please resist the urge to brag.” — Andy Borowitz
On a veggie diet this Thanksgiving: Carrot cake and pumpkin pie.
“Be thankful for what you have; you’ll end up having more. If you concentrate on what you don’t have, you will never, ever have enough.” — Oprah Winfrey
I think, therefore I cran.
Bad day to be a turkey.
Need fuel for Black Friday.
“Okay, guys. I have exactly 28 minutes before I have to baste again.” — Monica
Grateful. Thankful. Blessed.
Who made the potato salad?
There’s always something to be thankful for.
To-do list: eat, drink, nap.
I only have pies for you.
Gobble ’til you wobble.
Love at first bite.
Christmas & Hannukah Instagram Captions
You sleigh me.
Fa la la la llama.
“O Christmas tree, O Christmas tree, your ornaments are history.” — The Cat
“It’s not what’s under the Christmas tree that matters. It’s who’s around it.” — Charles M. Schulz
Dear Santa, let’s not talk about this.
Rebel Without a Claus
Doesn’t Santa have anything better to do than watch us while we’re sleeping?
All I want for Christmas is you (and wine would be nice).
Say it ain’t snow.
Drop it like a top.
Wishing you a latke love this Hanukkah.
I want to eat 8 latkes for the calories of one.
One little candle can light up an entire room.
Keep calm and spin that dreidel.
Deck the halls with matzo balls!
It’s Christmas time and I’m the gift.
The best gift is to be present with the ones you love.
Baby, it’s cold outside.
Merry everything and happy always.
Treat yo elf.
Seasonal Instagram Captions
As the seasons come and go, why not share your joy for the next one on your Instagram? Whether you love the sunshine in the Summer, or snowfall in the winter, you can share that excitement with others.
Ring in the new season with some of these witty, seasonal captions.
Spring Instagram Captions
“And I think to myself, what a wonderful world.” — Louis Armstrong
April showers bring May flowers.
I think I just experienced all the seasons in a single day.
I love allergy season, said no one ever.
Currently soaking up the sun and smelling the roses. Please leave a message after the beep.
I owe a lot to the inventor of flip-flops.
“Here comes the sun, and I say… It’s all right.” — The Beatles
“Warm winds in the springtime.” — SZA, “Warm Winds”
Springing into the new season.
Summer Instagram Captions
“Live in the sunshine. Swim in the sea. Drink in the wild air.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson
Life’s a beach.
School’s out, sun’s out, guns out.
“A little bit of summer is what the whole year is all about.” — John Mayer
90% happy, 10% burnt.
Girls just want to have sun.
“Summer lovin’ had me a blast, summer lovin’ happened so fast.” — Grease
Happiness is a cold popsicle.
Life is better by the pool.
“Summertime and the livin’ is easy.” — Ella Fitzgerald, “Summertime”
“Here comes the sun, and I say… It’s all right.” — The Beatles, “Here Comes the Sun”
Tans, tans, tans across the board.
Fall Instagram Captions
My favorite color is October.
“Wild is the music of autumnal winds amongst the faded woods.” — William Wordsworth
My favorite kind of weather.
It’s never too early for pumpkin spice.
Meet me in the corn maze.
Crisp air. Apple cider. Flaming foliage.
Pumpkin spice and everything nice.
“Anyone who thinks fallen leaves are dead has never watched them dancing on a windy day.” — Shira Tamir
Leaves are falling, and autumn is calling.
“Days in the sun and nights in the rain. Summer is over, simple and plain.” — Drake & Majid Jordan, “Summer’s Over”
Falling never felt so good.
Painted in the colors of fall.
Even the leaves fall for you.
Channel the flannel.
Winter Instagram Captions
“In the depths of winter, I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer.” — Albert Camus
If it’s snowing, I’m not going.
Cozy nights. Good books. Hot chocolate.
Do you want to build a snowman?
Running on caffeine and holiday cheer.
“Winter is not a season; it’s a celebration.” — Anamika Mishra
Merry and brrrrrrright.
Having snow much fun.
‘Tis the season to be freezin’.
“Timb’ laces get tighter and parka hoods flip up.” — Drake, “Come Winter”
Whether your Instagram page is personal or for your business, your captions should be on-brand, or reflective of your brand identity.
This encapsulates the nature of your Instagram’s branding and tone of voice. For example, if your page is based on self-love, you should use captions that are friendly in tone, and use inclusive language to make people feel good when they scroll through your Instagram profile.
2. Your caption is simple.
Instagram captions can fit up to 2,200 characters, but you don’t have to use all of them for your caption to be considered a good one. You ideally want to keep your captions clear, short, and simple for easy readability. You also want to keep your audience’s attention enough to read it to finish.
The exception to this is if you’re making posts that champion storytelling or other lengthy formats. Ultimately, it comes down to what your audience is looking for.
3. Your caption is memorable.
While your Instagram caption doesn’t have to be a profound piece of literature, you can make it memorable in a number of ways. Depending on the type of post you’re sharing, you can make it hilarious, thought-provoking, inspiring, or anything you want it to be.
Want more inspiration? Check out our Instagram page to see how we incorporate fun, witty, and engaging captions into our social media content. The captions often complement the post itself and prompt engagement from users. Instagram Insights metrics such as comments, likes, and saves show you how well you’re engaging users and whether your captions are effective in prompting likes and comments.
Here’s one example from HubSpot with the caption “You can’t spell ‘CRM’ without ‘R’”:
Don’t underestimate the power of a good caption. They can help you generate more engagement and turn your followers into customers.
How to Make Engaging IG Captions
Instagram captions can actually be used strategically, and in many cases help personal or business pages to increase engagement on the platform — and here’s how.
1. Ask your followers questions.
If you’re looking to entice your followers to interact or like your posts more, you could ask them for their opinion, recommendations, or even personal stories to make your page more interactive.
For example, if you’re running an Instagram page for fashion, ask your followers to comment under your newest post about their favorite designers, collections, or trends buzzing in the industry.
Or if you’re promoting a product or service, ask your followers to chime in on what they’d like to see, a problem they need solved, or even ask for a product review or testimonial on how your business has positively impacted them.
2. Add a CTA.
If you advertise your business, product, or free resource, add a clear and enticing call to action.
It doesn’t have to be the entire IG caption, but including it on the tail end of your post’s description can lead your followers from simply liking your post to visiting your online storefront or website.
You can use up to a maximum of 30 hashtags on a typical Instagram post, these give you a lot of possibilities to attract viewers based on your topic, location, industry, product, or service. Though, you shouldn’t feel pressured to use that many, just choose the ones you find essential, or even come up with your own personally branded one.
Capture the Feeling with an Instagram Caption
Even though an image is worth 1,000 words, a well-written caption couldn’t hurt. These days, the caption can make just as much of a statement as the image! For all of the occasions that are worthy of a post to your feed, use one of the quotes from this list and customize it to make it your own.
Editor’s note: This post was originally published in June 2020 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.